Purusha Sukta – 14

ಶ್ರೀ ಸುಮತೀಂದ್ರ ತೀರ್ಥರ ಹಾಗು ಹೆಳವನಕಟ್ಟೆ ಗಿರಿಯಮ್ಮನವರ ಸಂದರುಶನ
November 12, 2020
Purusha Sukta – 15
November 23, 2020

Purusha Sukta – 14

In the present series of articles, we have so far looked at fifteen mantras of the Purusha Sukta and the commentary of Sri Raghavendra Swamiji on the same. The Sutka started by singing the glory of Purusha and letting us know of his amazing गुणs. It then described the creation of the Chaturmukha Brahma and other Devatas, and how they started performing a manasa yajna of the Purusha Sri Narayana. The Sukta then described how various entities of nature were created from the various parts of the Purusha’s body.

Rayaru now comments on two mantras that are present in the Yajurveda Samhita of the Purusha Sukta. Although these two mantras are not present in the Rig Veda, they do find a mention after the mantra that ends with तथा लोकानकल्पयन् in the Yajurveda. Rayaru explains the reason for choosing to comment on these with the following justification:

भाष्याकारैस्तत्रोदाह्रुतत्वात् तदर्थ उच्यते

“Since the Bhashyakara has cited them at a few places, its meaning will be explained here”

Sri Madhwacharya, the Bhashyakara, has cited these two mantras in a few places in his Sarvamoola Granthas. Hence it is appropriate for us to understand and contemplate upon their meanings.

Mantra:

वेदाहमेतं पुरुषं महान्तं
आदित्यवर्णं तमसस्तु पारे |
सर्वाणि रूपाणि विचित्य धीरः
नामानि कृत्वाभिवदन्यदास्ते ||

“I shall obtain knowledge of that Parama Purusha who has created this Universe possessing identity and form, who engages through this very Universe, and who is eternal, omnipresent, full of auspicious attributes and beyond the shackles of Nature”

Rayaru explains that these two mantras are actually the words of the Rishi who had the vision of the Purusha Sukta. That is, the two words are मन्त्रद्रष्टृवचनम्. These two mantras are therefore, not like the other ones, which were seen by the Rishis through their inner eye. On the other hand, these two are the express statements of the Rishi expressing his awe over the Supreme Purusha.

This Universe we live in is defined by two important properties – an identity through name and an identity through form – नाम and रूप. The Supreme Purusha has created the Universe thus, says the Rishi.

नामरूपात्मकप्रपञ्चं कृत्वा य आस्ते |

“One who has created the name and form based world….”

The word महान्तं is explained by Rayaru as describing the Purusha’s supreme powers that extend beyond time and space. 

देशकालगुणापरिच्छिन्नम्

“He is beyond the attributes of time and space i.e. he is eternal and omnipresent”

The above mantra is a very good summary of the teachings of the Purusha Sukta as the Sukta describes the greatness of Purusha in terms of his unfathomable attributes such as eternal nature and omnipresence and the engagement of the Purusha with this world which is his very creation.

With this, Sri Raghavendra Swamiji comments on the next mantra:

Mantra:

धाता पुरस्ताद्यमुदाजहार
शक्रः प्रविद्वान् प्रदिशश्चतस्रः |
तमेवं विद्वानमृत इह भवति
नान्यः पन्था अयनाय विद्यते ||

“One who realizes that excellent and great Purusha, whom Brahma realized in all directions, and whom Indra realized as the protector from all sides, as stated earlier (in the Sukta); such a person will attain liberation. There is no other way apart from (possessing) this knowledge to obtain liberation”

Rayaru indicates that this particular mantra highlights the power of the Purusha Sukta to grant Moksha. The word अयनाय means मोक्षाय. 

Therefore मोक्षाय न अन्यः पन्था विद्यते or there exists no path to obtain moksha other than knowing the Purusha’s true self!

Sri Raghavendra Swamiji explains that the word धाता in this mantra refers to Chaturmukha Brahma who is the main beneficiary mentioned in the Sukta. Through the process of the manasa yajna described in the previous mantras, Brahma attains knowledge of the Purusha and his greatness.

तं पुरुषं | एवं सहस्रशीर्षत्वादिमहिमावत्प्रकारेण | इह लोके | विद्वान् जानन् | अमृतो मुक्तो भवति

“Tam refers to Purusha. Evam indicates the method which is through the understanding of Purusha as revealed by the Sahasrasheersha and other mantras. One who knows him thus will attain Mukti”.

Therefore, the goal of these two mantras is to realize

  • That the Purusha Sukta allows us to understand Sriman Narayana in all his glory while appreciating his creation which is this wonderful Universe.
  • That the result of such an understanding is the attainment of Mukti and eternal bliss.

Sri Krishnarpanamastu

Hariprasad N
Hariprasad N
Hariprasad N is based out of Bangalore, and works in the Software Industry, mainly on system software. Hari is a staunch believer in the Tattvavada philosophy of Sri Madhwacharya and owes his existence to the grace of Sri Raghavendra Swamiji. He has interests in the areas of Spirituality, Politics and Law

1 Comment

  1. Anand says:

    Great explanation

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