After having commented upon all the previous mantras of the Purusha Sukta, Sri Raghavendra Swamiji finally reveals, through a beautiful explanation, how the last mantra in the Sukta is effectively a फल श्रुति conveying the result of what was undertaken in the previous mantras.
यज्ञेन यज्ञमयजन्त देवा
स्तानि धर्माणि प्रथमान्यासन् |
ते ह नाकं महिमानः सचन्त
यत्र पूर्वे साध्याः सन्ति देवाः ||
“Having worshipped the Purusha through the Yajna, those souls who are qualified to become Devatas obtained those very positions. They then discharged their important Dharmas as ordained. Thereafter, they obtained the world that is free of any sorrow, where the Devatas who obtained their liberation earlier reside”
Rayaru explains in the beginning that the word Deva here stands for those Jeevas who are qualified to reach the position of Devatas. They are souls who are most Satvika per their inherent nature and possess the ability to discharge the Dharma of Devatas. Such Jeevas worshipped the Purusha, known here by the name of ‘Yajna’, through the route of manasa yajna as described in the previous mantras.
देवा means देवत्वयोग्या मनुष्या or those qualified for becoming Devatas.
Rayaru explains यज्ञेन as ज्ञानकर्मात्मकेन यज्ञेन or ‘sacrifice that included the instruments of knowledge and karma (sacrificial rituals)’.
The word यज्ञं in the mantra stands for Sri Narayana himself.
यज्ञं भगवन्तं पुरुषं
“Yajna here means Bhagavan – Purusha”
Thus the Jeevas fit for the position of Devatas worshipped Purusha through the manasa yajna.
When they worshipped him thus, they were blessed (by the Purusha) and obtained the position of Devatas. Having reached such positions, they then devotedly discharged their ordained duties.
The Devatas preside over various natural phenomenon, responsible for the functioning of Nature as per the wishes of Paramatma. Thus Agni presides over fire, Indra presides over rain and so on.
Rayaru explains that the second quarter of the mantra speaks of such discharge of Dharma by the Devatas.
तानि stands for the Devatas – ‘तानि दैवतानि’.
The word धर्माणि stands for the responsibilities shouldered by them and the word प्रथमानि indicates the importance of those responsibilities or their primacy (amongst all other Dharmas).
तानि दैवतानि स्वस्वपदं प्राप्य प्रथमानि मुख्यानि उत्तमानि धर्माणि धारकाणि
“Those Devatas, having reached their posts, bore the responsibility of the most important and excellent Dharmas”
The mantra then describes the phala or result of having worshipped the Purusha and having discharged the duties.
Sri Raghavendra Swamiji reveals a beautiful meaning for the word नाकं.
नाकं अकं सुखविरोधि दुःखं तन्नेति नाकं
“The word Nakam means that which is not Akam which in turn means that which is the opposite of joy”
In Samskrita, the word कं means joy or bliss. Therefore the word अकं means that which is not joy or as Rayaru says it is सुखविरोधि. अकं means sorrow. Hence, the word नाकं means न अकं or ‘not sorrow’. नाकं therefore means joy, bliss or happiness!
Rayaru explains the Devatas, having discharged their Dharma, are granted a loka in which there is absolutely no sorrow. Being in such a world where there is not even a trace of दुःख is the very definition of मोक्ष.
In other words, Purusha grants Moksha to these Devatas.
The last quarter of the mantra – यत्र पूर्वे साध्याः सन्ति देवाः – indicates that in this grand sport of the Purusha, infinite number of such Devatas have already reached Moksha. The present set of Devatas reached those very lokas which the previously liberated Devatas have already attained.
यद्वा पूर्वे इति प्रथमा पुरातनाः पूर्वकल्पमुक्ताः इति यावत्
“The word Purva here means those who have been liberated first, or in the earlier Kalpas”
“The word Sadhya stands also as representing the Devatas (apart from the category of souls known as Sadhyas)”
In every Kalpa of the Chaturmukha Brahma, Paramatma brings out innumerable number of souls into Samsara. At the end of the Kalpa, all the mukti-yogya Jeevas attain liberation and reach the mukti-lokas. The present set of Devatas also reach the same lokas where their predecessors are already enjoying moksha.
With this, Rayaru ends his commentary on the mantras of the Purusha Sukta. He completes the grantha with a mangala shloka at the end.
श्रीमत्पुरुषसूक्तस्य व्याख्यानं शिष्यचोदनात् |
राघवेन्द्रेण यतिना निर्मितं हरितुष्टये ||
“Having been prodded by his students, this commentary on the Purusha Sukta has been prepared by Sri Raghavendra Yati, in order to please Sri Hari”
Rayaru reveals in this last shloka that he has composed this work based on the explicit request of some of his shishyas, who prodded him (repeatedly) to bless them with an explanation of this most important Sukta in the entire Veda.
May the chanting of this sacred Sukta, along with contemplation of its meaning, relying upon the excellent commentary granted to us by Sri Raghavendra Swamiji, earn us the grace of Sriman Narayana. May he show us the path to more spiritual knowledge and in turn grant us Mukti!
|| श्री राघवेन्द्रतीर्थ गुर्वन्तर्गत मुख्यप्राणान्तर्गत श्री मूलरघुपति प्रीयताम् ||
|| श्री कृष्णार्पणमस्तु ||