Purusha Sukta – 5

ರಾಘವೇಂದ್ರ ಪಾಹಿಮಾಂ, ರಾಘವೇಂದ್ರ ರಕ್ಷಮಾಂ
September 12, 2020
Dashavatara Sthavanam
September 15, 2020

Purusha Sukta – 5

After describing the greatness of Vishnu in the previous four mantras, the Purusha Sukta starts describing the creation of the Universe and its beings from the fifth mantra onwards. Thus starts the ‘tasmaad virat…’ mantra:

तस्माद् विरालजायत विराजो अधि पूरुषः |स जातो अत्यरिच्यत पश्चाद् भूमिमथो पुरः ||

“From Him came into being the Universe. The four-faced Brahma came into being enveloping the Universe. Brahma became the Lord of the Earth and all other Devatas and other beings that came into existence after him”

Sri Raghavendra Swamiji first explains the coming into being of the Universe. Such a Universe came from (due to) the Purusha. To show this dependency, the mantra employs the word पूरुषः which shows that it came from the पुरुषः.

Rayaru says that the word विराट् indicates that the said Universe is resplendent being golden in colour. Such a Universe came into being.

पुरुषात् स्वर्णमयतया विशेषेण राजत इति विराट् शब्दितं ब्रह्माण्डं अजायत

“From the Purusha came into existence the golden Universe that was Virat i.e. especially radiant…”

When such a Universe came into being, the four-faced Brahma came into existence next. In this form, the Chaturmukha Brahma permeated the entire Universe. Such a Brahma too possesses the name विराट्.

तथा विराजः अधि अण्डमभिव्याप्य | विराण्णामा पुरुषः चतुर्मुखः अजायत तथा |

“Then the Chaturmukha Brahma, known as Virat, came into existence and permeated the entire Universe”

Sri Raghavendra Swamiji then shows how this mantra extolls the supremacy of Vishnu. It is quite clear that Brahma came into being from Purusha first. The same Brahma then also undertook a birth from the lotus present in the navel of Sri Vishnu. Thus, Brahma not only had two births but in his second birth he also possessed a material body, complete with Indriyas etc. Hence Sri Vishnu is superior to such a Brahma since he is the creator of Brahma and is free from birth and other restrictions.

The second part of the fifth mantra shows the supremacy of the first born Chaturmukha Brahma over other beings.

Rayaru says the words of the mantra are to be arranged and understood thus – स पश्चात् जातः भूमिं अथो पुरः अत्यरिच्यत

The word भूमिं used here stands for not only the Earth as we usually understand, but also as representing the entire collective of all living beings.

भूमिं भूम्युपलक्षितसर्वलोकस्थितशङ्करपूर्वकाशेषजीवजातं

“The word Bhumi means not only Earth but is also representative of all living beings in all the worlds”

These various different worlds have their Abhimani Devatas or presiding deities. Chaturmukha Brahma is the Lord of these Devatas too.

Rayaru says Brahma prevails over (presides over) even these previously born Abhimani Devatas. He is their controller while Vishnu is his controller.
अथो पुरः पूर्वं जातं ब्रह्माण्डं तदभिमानिनश्च अत्यरिच्यत अतिरिच्य वर्तते

“Thus he prevails over the previously created Brahmanda and their Abhimani Devatas”

Sri Raghavendra Swamiji concludes his explanation of this mantra by quoting the words of Sri Madhwacharya from the Bhagavata Tatparya Nirnaya wherein Srimadacharya has explained this process of creation.

Therefore, in summary, the fifth mantra of the Purusha Sukta explains that this resplendent Universe and its Lord, the Chaturmukha Brahma, came into existence from Sri Narayana. Brahma also has to undertake a second birth from the navel of Sri Vishnu, thus establishing the latter’s superiority. The four-faced Brahma, born in this way, prevails over the rest of the Devatas, Earth and other worlds and the entire set of Jeevas that exist in this Universe.
Sri Krishnarpanamastu

Hariprasad N
Hariprasad N
Hariprasad N is based out of Bangalore, and works in the Software Industry, mainly on system software. Hari is a staunch believer in the Tattvavada philosophy of Sri Madhwacharya and owes his existence to the grace of Sri Raghavendra Swamiji. He has interests in the areas of Spirituality, Politics and Law

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