Rayaru – Purusha Sukta – 2

History of Sri Vyasatatvajna Teertharu – Part 2/n
August 21, 2020
Nitya Rayara Grantha Parichaya – Adi Shlokas
August 24, 2020

Rayaru – Purusha Sukta – 2

In the previous article, we had looked at the introduction and the explanation for the first rik of the Purusha Sukta as given by Sri Raghavendra Swamiji in his Vyakhyana. Let us continue our effort to understand Rayaru’s commentary by looking at the second rik.

पुरुष एवेदं सर्वं यद्भूतं यच्च भव्यम् |
उताम्रुतत्त्वस्येशानो यदन्नेनातिरोहति || 2 ||

That which existed earlier, which exists today and which will manifest in the future, all are under the control of Purusha. He is the controller of those still in samsara and those who are liberated from it.

Rayaru explains the purpose of this particular mantra first. In the first rik, the Supremacy of Purusha or Vishnu over even Mahalakshmi is clearly brought out. So it is established that Purusha is the controller of even the one who is the presiding deity for Prakruti (material world). A natural question that could arise then is – Is the material world itself under the aegis of Lakshmi only, without any control of Purusha? Rayaru says the second mantra is there to dispel any doubts about this.

In the first mantra, the प्रकृति नियन्त्रुत्त्व or the control over the Lord of Prakruti (Lakshmi) is brought out whereas in this mantra the प्राकृतसर्व नियन्त्रुत्त्व or the control over everything that is made of Prakruti i.e. the Universe is established.
द्वितीयमन्त्रेण प्राकृतसर्वनियन्त्रुत्वादिमहात्म्यमाह पुरुष एवेदमिति

In the second mantra starting with Purusha evedam, the control of Purusha over all that is material in nature is elucidated.
पुरुष एवेदं सर्वं

The words पुरुष एवेदं सर्वं is interpreted by many as stating that the Purusha is all-pervading. This would eliminate any difference between Purusha and the world and goes against many other Pramanas. Sri Raghavendra Swamiji explains that the phrase here actually means that everything is under the control of Purusha and it does not mean Purusha is everything. He quotes a Smriti vakya as proof for this:

यदधीना यस्य सत्ता तत्तदित्येव भण्यते

It is practice to talk of the one who is under control and the one controlling as being one.
Rayaru cites the customary practice of stating राजा राष्ट्रं. The literal meaning of this phrase is ‘The King is the Nation’. However it is quite clear that the intended meaning is that the nation is under complete control of the King. The same logic is to be applied while interpreting पुरुष एवेदं सर्वं.

He then provides several examples from other works that help in explaining this phrase in the mantra. He cites commentaries of the Srimadbhagavata, the Shakhantara Brahmana and also the Nyayasudha of Sri Jayatirtha to buttress the given explanation.
यद्भूतं यच्च भव्यम्

Sri Raghavendra Swamiji explains that the phrase यद्भूतं यच्च भव्यम् represents the Jeevas that have earlier taken birth, are now under birth, and those that will take birth in the future. In other words, this phrase stands for the Samsara Jeevas.
तेषां देहाद्वारा भूतत्त्वाद्युपपत्तेः …

Due to the fact that they (Jeevas) possess bodies, this phrase stands for them.

In this word, अन्न stands for those Jeevas still in samsara. The explanation he gives is as follows:
अन्नं अदनीयं मरणशीलं संसारिजीवजातं

The word Anna here means those who undergo death (and other phases of life such as rebirth, growth, ageing etc). Hence Anna stands for the Jeevas still in samsara.

Rayaru says the prefix उत here means ‘also’. Therefore, Purusha is the controller of even those who have obtained अमृतत्त्व or liberation. Since he is in control of all things at all times, even those who are in Moksha and liberated from Samsara are also (still) under his control.
In the second half of this mantra, the two parts are to be understood in the reverse order.
यदन्नेन अतिरोहति उत अमृतत्त्वस्य ईशानः – He lords over those who are still in Samsara and therefore he is in control of those who are in Moksha also.

He cites various quotes from the Shastra literature, such as ‘मुक्तानां परमा गतिः’, ‘अमृतस्य एष सेतुः’ and ‘मुक्तोपस्रुप्यव्यपदेषात्’ to support this logical explanation.

Further, he explains that the Srimadbhagavata shloka number 18 in the sixth adhyaya of the second skanda provides the same explanation for this shloka.
सोsमृतस्याभयस्येशो मर्त्यमन्नं यदत्यगात् ….

Thus, in this second mantra of the Purusha Sukta, the all-controlling ability of the Purusha over all that was there in the past, all that is current, and all that will come in the future is described. It also establishes that the Purusha is the controller of those who are still in Samsara and those who are liberated.

Sri Krishnarpanamastu.

Hariprasad N
Hariprasad N
Hariprasad N is based out of Bangalore, and works in the Software Industry, mainly on system software. Hari is a staunch believer in the Tattvavada philosophy of Sri Madhwacharya and owes his existence to the grace of Sri Raghavendra Swamiji. He has interests in the areas of Spirituality, Politics and Law

1 Comment

  1. Arathi Sudharsan says:

    Good series of articles. The author has lucidly explained the work by Rayaru in such a way that even common people will find it easy to understand. Thank you very much for the artices.

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